Paios performs a large variety of electrical and optical characterizations on organic, perovskite and quantum-dot LEDs and solar cells with one click. Get consistent and precise measurement data, directly compare your results in the measurement software and speed up your R&D.

  • Compare the results from different devices directly in the software. Get highly consistent data.

  • Reliable and low-noise signals. High reproducibility.

  • Build a reproducible and reliable device database and store it in the Paios managing software.

  • Think about physics - Let Paios handle the rest.

Paios Tutorial Video

DC, AC and Transient Characterization of OLEDs and Solar Cells

Paios performs a variety of different experiments on OLEDs and solar cells. Connect your device, lunch the routine and every measurement is performed automatically. An overview of all characterization techniques for solar cells can be found in our review publicationOpto-electronic characterization of third-generation solar cells”.

Photo-celiv solar cells and oleds

Photo-CELIV is a powerful technique to extract charge carrier mobility, recombination, and doping density.
Now OTRACE is included in Paios.

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Impedance Spectroscopy is used to study charge carrier dynamics and charge trapping over a large range of time scales.

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capacitance-voltage analysis of OLED and solar cells

Capacitance-Voltage reveals information about the built-in field and charge injection barriers. Doping density is extracted with Mott-Schottky analysis.

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transient-photovoltage-charge-carrier-lifetime Oleds and solar cells

Transient Photovoltage (TPV) is frequently used to determine lifetimes of charge carriers in solar cells.

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dark-injection-transient oled and solar cells

Dark Injection Transient (DIT) is used to study transport in mono-polar devices.

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intensity-modulated-photocurrent-spectroscopy for oleds and solar cells

Intensity Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy (IMPS) probes charge transport by a sinusoidal light intensity variation at short-circuit.

TEL-transient-electroluminescence oleds and solar cells

Transient Electroluminescence (TEL) allows extracting mobilities and the phosphorescence lifetime in an OLED.

current-volage characterization of oleds and solar cells

IV & IVL are the standard characteri- zation techniques for solar cells and OLEDs.

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intensity-modulated-photovoltage-spectroscopy for oleds and solar cells

Intensity Modulated Photovoltage Spectroscopy (IMVS) probes charge recombination by a sinusoidal light intensity variation at open-circuit.

transient-photocurrent oleds and solar cells

Transient Photocurrent (TPC) provides information on the charge carrier dynamics and charge trapping.

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charge extraction in oleds and solar cells

Charge Extraction estimates the charge carrier density of a solar cell at open-circuit voltage.

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modulated-electroluminescense-spectroscopy for oleds and solar cells

Modulated Electroluminescence Spectroscopy (MELS) probes charge transport in OLEDs at different frequencies.

OLED and PV Characterization

Paios is suitable for the characterization of both solar cells and OLEDs. The versatile Combined Version is suitable for research and development on both LEDs and photovoltaic devices.

  • SOLAR CELLS: the main hardware is equipped with a suitable LED illumination system. A multi-LED board can be employed for External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) measurements.

  • OLEDs: an amplified photodetector with autogain is included in the version for OLED research.


Flexible Probe Station

probe station for oled and solar cell characterization

probe station for oled and solar cell characterization

Our contacting probes are developed to create a reproducible contact with low parasitic resistance to your device. With the magnetic feet, they are flexible for different sample layouts. The device can be easily aligned using our alignment-tool.
The measurement table comes with a black lid to ensure the reproducibility of dark measurements.

We also deliver a customized sample-holder upon request. See Paios Modules for more details.

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Setfos/Paios Integration

Physical processes are often too complex to understand by qualitative explanations. Numerical simulation enables quantitative understanding of experimental results and can be used to test hypotheses. The drift-diffusion simulation software Setfos is seamlessly integrated into the Paios control software, which allows comparison of measurement and simulation directly in Paios. Paios and Setfos represent, therefore, a unique powerful tool for the complete characterization of OLEDs and solar cells.



Automated Fitting

Many electrical parameters of organic, perovskite and hybrid devices cannot be determined easily. Comprehensive device modeling is required to extract these parameters. Paios does the job for you. The parameter fitting routine optimizes simulation parameters to meet defined targets and calculates the parameter correlation to check the quality of the fit.
Use Setfos-Paios Integration to extract the following parameters:

  • Electron and hole mobility

  • Recombination efficiency or charge carrier lifetime

  • Charge injection barriers

  • Built-in voltage / HOMO / LUMO

  • Trap density

  • Trap depth

  • Doping density

  • Permanent dipole moments

  • Series resistance

  • Electrical permittivity

  • Emitter lifetime (OLED)

  • Photon to charge conversion efficiency (PV)

Paios performs global parameter fits on a combination of all available experiments, e.g. capacitance-voltage, impedance, IV-curves, TPV, TPC, photo-CELIV. Our advanced algorithms make it possible to get a fitting within a few minutes. Parameter evolution and fit results can be monitored directly during optimization.
The fit quality can be analysed with the correlation matrix that is automatically calculated by Paios. The correlation matrix is important to judge how accurate the extracted parameters are.

The change of all parameters is displayed during the fitting.

Measurement and simulation are brought to agreement.

The correlation matrix shows the quality of the fit.

Features  Software, Specs And Screenshots

Software, Specs And Screenshots

Modules  Spectrometer, Low Temperature, Stress-Test, ...

Spectrometer, Low Temperature, Stress-Test, ...

References  Testimonials And Publications using our products

Testimonials And Publications using our products