Main Characteristics


Sweep Measurement Parameters
Sweeping means that your measurement is performed several times by changind one or two parameters. Paios allows to graphically check the measurement data easily with a sweep slider.

Data Management and Comparison
Paios is more than a measurement tool. Paios acquires systematic data of dozens of devices and lets you compare them in its management software. Learn from your experiments without tedious manual processing of data.

User-Defined Signals
Design your own transient experiments using the Paios signal editor.
A new idea for an experiment can easily be tested.


Correct RC-Effects
RC-effects are superimposed on the device current and can significantly disturb transient experiments.
Paios provides routines to extract the series resistance and the geometric capacitance of the device. With these values the displacement current is calculated and the current can be corrected for the RC-effects.

Flexible Time-Resolution

Flex-res: The time resolution of the transient-measurement is varied logarithmically to obtain a very high dynamic range

Flex-res: The time resolution of the transient-measurement is varied logarithmically to obtain a very high dynamic range

Traditional measurement setups using linear time sampling can resolve only 3 orders of magnitude in time.
Paios performs measurements over 8 orders of magnitude in time, in one shot.

This feature is especially useful for perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cells exhibit an extraordinarily broad dynamic range from microseconds to minutes. These time dynamics can be resolved with the feature Flex-Res of Paios.

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Perovskite: Device Preconditioning

precondition a perovskite solar cell: The voltage adjusts mobile ions prior to a light pulse experiment

The response of perovskite solar cells depends on the «internal state» of the device prior to the measurement. This leads to a hysteresis in the IV curve. Paios can precondition the device with voltage, current or illumination and perform the experiments directly afterwards. This increases the experiment reproducibility.

Use preconditioning to investigate the effect of mobile ions, ferroelectricity or deep trap sites.


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Paios comes with flexible and user-friendly post-processing routines included. This enables to easily analyze experiments and extract parameters even for novice users.

Charge Carrier Mobility form photo-CELIV

Extract the charge carrier mobility of solar cells using the photo-CELIV experiment.

Doping Density from Dark-CELIV

The dark-CELIV overshoot is integrated (shown in blue) to obtain the doping density.

Phosphorescence Lifetime from TEL

Extract the luminescense lifetime of OLEDs from EL turn-off.

Permittivity from Voltage Pulse

A voltage pulse in reverse allows to extract the capacitance and the permittivity.


Equivalent Circuit Fitting

Impedance spectroscopy data is often analysed with equivalent circuits. In Paios all kind of cricuits can be fitting to the measurement data.

Charge Carrier Mobility from Mott-Gurney

In monopolar devices the charge carrier mobility can be extracted from an IV-curve using a SCLC-fit.

Doping Density from Mott-Schottky

With a Mott-Schottky analysis the doping density of a semiconductor can be extracted.

Basic Solar Cell Parameters

Extract short-circuit current, open-circuit-voltage, the MMP and the fill factor of a solar cell.


Mobility from Transient Electroluminescence

Extracts the mobility from the delay time between voltage and EL turn-on of an OLED.

Series Resistance from Impedance

A very reliable method to extract the series resistance and the geometric capacitance from impedance data.

Recombination from photo-CELIV

Extracts the recombination coefficient from photo-CELIV or charge extraction measurement with varied delay-time.

Transport-Time from IMPS

Easily determine the IMPS transport-time that describes how fast charges reach the contacts.


Sampling-rate 60 MS/s
Time resolution 16 ns
Voltage range ± 12 V
Extended voltage range
(SMU-module, up to 1 kHz)
± 60 V
Frequency range
impedance spectroscopy
10 mHz to 10 MHz
Minimal resolvable current < 10 pA
Maximum current 100 mA
LED rise/fall time (PV version) 100 ns
Illumination area (PV version) 1.7 cm2
Measurement resolution 12 Bit
Computer Connection PXI and USB
Weight 15 kg
Dimensions 40 x 30 x 20 cm3


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Learn More

Introduction  Overview, Measurement Types, Probe-Tips

Overview, Measurement Types, Probe-Tips

Modules  Spectrometer, Low Temperature, Stress-Test, ...

Spectrometer, Low Temperature, Stress-Test, ...

References  Testimonials And Publications using our products

Testimonials And Publications using our products