Paios performs a large variety of electrical and optical characterizations on organic, perovskite and quantum-dot LEDs and solar cells with one click. Get consistent and precise measurement data, directly compare your results in the measurement software and speed up your R&D.

  • Compare the results from different devices directly in the software. Get highly consistent data.

  • Reliable and low-noise signals. High reproducibility.

  • Build a reproducible and reliable device database and store it in the Paios managing software.

  • Think about physics - Let Paios handle the rest.

    Paios Tutorial Video

Measurement Techniques

Paios performs a variety of different experiments on OLEDs and solar cells. Connect your device, lunch the routine and every measurement is performed automatically. An overview of all characterization techniques for solar cells can be found in our review publicationOpto-electronic characterization of third-generation solar cells”.


Photo-CELIV is a powerful technique to extract charge carrier mobility, recombination and doping density.
Now OTRACE is included in Paios.

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Impedance Spectroscopy is used to study charge carrier dynamics and charge trapping over a large range of time scales.

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Capacitance-Voltage reveals information about the built-in field and the charge injection barriers. Doping density is extracted with Mott-Schottky analysis.

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Transient Photovoltage (TPV) is frequently used to de- termine lifetimes of charge carriers in solar cells.

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Dark Injection Transient (DIT) is used to study transport in mono-polar devices.

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Intensity Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy (IMPS) probes charge transport by a sinusoidal light intensity variation at short-circuit.


Transient Electroluminescence (TEL) allows to extract mobilities and the phosphorescence lifetime in an OLED.


IV & IVL are the standard characteri- zation techniques for solar cells and OLEDs.

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Intensity Modulated Photovoltage Spectroscopy (IMVS) probes charge recombination by a sinousoidal light intensity variation at open-circuit.


Transient Photocurrent (TPC) provides information on the charge carrier dynamics and charge trapping.

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Charge Extraction estimates the charge carrier density of a solar cell at open-circuit voltage.

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Modulated Electroluminescense Spectroscopy (MELS) probes charge transport in OLEDs at different frequencies.

OLED and PV Version

Paios is suitable for the characterization of both solar cells and OLEDs. For solar cell research, the main hardware is equipped with a suitable LED illumination system, whereas a photodetector is included in the version for OLED research. The versatile Combined version is suitable for research and development on both LEDs and photovoltaic devices.


Flexible Probe Station


Our contacting probes are developed to create a reproducible contact with low parasitic resistance to your device. With the magnetic feet they are flexible for different sample layouts. The device can be easily aligned using our alignment-tool.
The measurement table comes with a black lid to ensure reproducibility of dark measurements.

We also deliver a customized sample-holder upon request. See Paios Modules for more details.

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Setfos/Paios Integration

Physical processes are often too complex to understand by qualitative explanations. Numerical simulation enables quantitative understanding of experimental results and can be used to test hypotheses. The drift-diffusion simulation software Setfos is seamlessly integrated into the Paios control software, which allows comparison of measurement and simulation directly in Paios. Paios and Setfos represent, therefore, an unique powerful tool for the complete characterization of OLEDs and solar cells.



Automated Fitting

Many electrical parameters of organic, perovskite and hybrid devices cannot be determined easily. Comprehensive device modeling is required to extract these parameters. Paios does the job for you. The parameter fitting routine optimizes simulation parameters to meet defined targets and calculates the parameter correlation to check the quality of the fit.
Use Setfos-Paios Integration to extract the following parameters:

  • Electron and hole mobility

  • Recombination efficiency or charge carrier lifetime

  • Charge injection barriers

  • Built-in voltage / HOMO / LUMO

  • Trap density

  • Trap depth

  • Doping density

  • Permanent dipole moments

  • Series resistance

  • Electrical permittivity

  • Emitter lifetime (OLED)

  • Photon to charge conversion efficiency (PV)

Paios performs global parameter fits on a combination of all available experiments, e.g. capacitance-voltage, impedance, IV-curves, TPV, TPC, photo-CELIV. Our advanced algorithms make it possible to get fitting result within a few minutes. Parameter evolution and fit results can be monitored directly during optimization.
The fit quality can be analysed with the correlation matrix that is automatically calculated by Paios. The correlation matrix is important to judge how accurate the extracted parameters are.

The change of all parameters are displayed during the fitting.

Measurement and simulation are brought to agreement.

The correlation matrix shows the quality of the fit.

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Features  Software, Specs And Screenshots

Software, Specs And Screenshots

Modules  Spectrometer, Low Temperature, Stress-Test, ...

Spectrometer, Low Temperature, Stress-Test, ...

References  Testimonials And Publications using our products

Testimonials And Publications using our products