Paios performs a large variety of experiments in no time with one click. Get consistent and precise measurement data, directly compare your results in the measurement software and speed up your research.
- Increase your research speed
- Compare your devices directly in the software
- Get highly consistent data
- Think about physics - Let Paios handle the rest
Paios performs a variety of different experimental techniques. Connect your device once, click once and everything is measured automatically. An overview of all characterization techniques for solar cells can be found in our review publication: Opto-electronic characterization of third-generation solar cells.
Photo-CELIV is a powerful technique to extract charge carrier mobility, recombination and doping density.
Now OTRACE is included in Paios.
Impedance Spectroscopy is used to study charge carrier dynamics and charge trapping over a large range of time scales.
Capacitance-Voltage reveals information about the built-in field and the charge injection barriers. Doping density is extracted with Mott-Schottky analysis.
Transient Photovoltage (TPV) is frequently used to de- termine lifetimes of charge carriers in solar cells.
Dark Injection Transient (DIT) is used to study transport in mono-polar devices.
Intensity Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy (IMPS) probes charge transport by a sinusoidal light intensity variation at short-circuit.
Transient Electroluminescence (TEL) allows to extract mobilities and the phosphorescence lifetime in an OLED.
IV & IVL are the standard characteri- zation techniques for solar cells and OLEDs.
Intensity Modulated Photovoltage Spectroscopy (IMVS) probes charge recombination by a sinousoidal light intensity variation at open-cirucit.
Transient Photocurrent (TPC) provides information on the charge carrier dynamics and charge trapping.
Charge Extraction estimates the charge carrier density of a solar cell at open-circuit voltage.
Modulated Electroluminescense Spectroscopy (MELS) probes charge transport in OLEDs on different frequencies.
OLED and PV Version
Paios is available in a version for solar cells and a version for OLEDs, either with LED illumination or with a photo-detector. Both versions can also be combined in one Paios.
Flexible Device Contacting
Our contacting probes are developed to create a low-resistance and reproducible contact to your device. With the magnetic feet they are flexible for different sample layouts. The device can be easily aligned using our alignment-tool.
The measurement table comes with a black lid to ensure measurements in the dark.
We also deliver a customized sample-holder upon request. See Paios Modules.
Integration of Simulation Software
Physical processes are often too complex to understand by qualitative explanations. Numerical simulation enables quantitative understanding of experimental results and can be used to put hypotheses under test. The drift-diffusion simulation software Setfos is seamlessly integrated into the Paios software.
Compare measurement and simulation directly in the Paios software.
Parameter Extraction with Automated Fitting
Many electrical parameters of organic or hybrid devices and materials (including perovskite solar cells) cannot be easily determined individually. Comprehensive device modelling is required to extract these parameters. Paios does the job for you. The parameter fitting routine optimizes simulation parameters to meet defined targets and calculates the parameter correlation to check the quality of the fit.
Use Setfos-Paios Integration to extract the following parameters:
- Electron and hole mobility
- Recombination efficiency or charge carrier lifetime
- Charge injection barriers
- Built-in voltage / HOMO / LUMO
- Trap density
- Trap depth
- Doping density
- Permanent dipole moments
- Series resistance
- Electrical permittivity
- Emitter lifetime (OLED)
- Photon to charge conversion efficiency (PV)
Paios performs global parameter fits on a combination of all available experiment types like capacitance-voltage, impedance, IV-curves, TPV, TPC, photo-CELIV. Our advanced algorithms make it possible to get fitting result within a few minutes. Parameter evolution and fit results can be monitored directly during optimization.
The fit quality can be analysed with the correlation matrix that is automatically calculated by Paios. The correlation matrix is important to judge how accurate the extracted parameters are.
Checkout the short introduction of the Paios measurement system by the product manager Martin Neukom.