The Setfos Advanced Optics module calculates the bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF):




In a flat OLED around 80% of the emitted light is trapped (and lost) inside the organic and substrate layers. Optical scattering greatly improves the efficiency of OLEDs. The Advanced Optics module has been developed to design scattering layers and optimize the OLED efficiency with these additional features.

  • Simulation of scattering by structured electrodes (external scattering)

  • Scattering by nanoparticles in the bulk (internal scattering) by using Mie theory.

  • Import rough surface textures from profilometric data or use the synthetic rough surface generator in Setfos

  • Combine multiple scattering layers within the same device.

Solar Cells


Light management layers are employed to enhance the absorption of thin film solar cells. The Advanced Optics module enables fast design of the scattering layer and the thin film stack of organic and perovskite-based solar cells.

  • Optimize the scattering layer and the thin film stack, simultaneously.

  • Design scattering surfaces and particle dispersions.

  • Analyze absorption in the active layer and parasitic absorption per wavelength.



Scattering Surfaces

Non-flat layers of micro- or nanosized features scatter light outside the specular directions both in reflection and transmission. This interface scattering can be external, at the air interface, or internal in the layer stack. Setfos can treat the wide variety of structuring methods used throughout industry and academia

  • Import texture data from profile measurements (AFM).

  • Employ analytical scatter distribution functions to find the optimal BSDF.

  • Import experimental BSDF data.

  • Simulating microlenses and -textures via ray-tracing.

  • Simulate using geometric (ray) or physical (wave) optics.

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Scattering Particles

Micro or nano particles dispersed in a host material form effective scattering layers. Setfos Mie Scattering allows to:

  • Optimize concentration and refractive index of particle scattering layers.

  • Simulate the effect of the particle size distribution.

  • Consider the effect of spherical particles of any size.

  • Vary the physical parameters of the host material.

  • Combine stack and outcoupling layer design.

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Quantum Dots


Quantum dots are used to expand the color gamut of a displays and convert light to lower wavelengths in solar cells. Setfos can simulate the interplay between the nanocrystals and the optical environment:

  • Simulate mixtures of different type and concentrations of nanocrystals, including self-absorption.

  • Combine quantum dots with scattering particles.

  • Calculate the angular dependence of absorption and emission of thin film stacks containing a layer of quantum dots.

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Both small organic molecule and polymers can exhibit birefringence, which influence the characteristics of the device. Setfos calculates the effects of unixial anisotropy in a thin film micro-cavity and in the OLED emitting material.

  • Simulate devices with layers having a refractive index with ordinary and extraordinary component.

  • Determine the emitter orientation in a birefringent emitting layer.

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Additional Modules