Laoss is a powerful software to perform electrical, thermal and optical simulation on large area semiconductor devices. This software has been developed to allow design and optimization of OLEDs, solar cells and large-are panels (displays and photovoltaic arrays).

  • Easy-to-use. Get started quickly on Finite-Element-Analysis (FEA) even without expertise.

  • Wide range of different output data and comprehensive result visualization.

  • High speed computation on standard PCs

  • Intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) and workflow

Laoss Workflow


Electrical Module


Simulate the characteristics of large-area OLEDs and solar cells  (current-voltage curves, total power dissipation, fill factor vs. conductivity, 2D-distribution of the electrical potential…).

  • Optimization of the electrode design. Reduction of electrical losses.

  • Studying non-ideal effects in OLEDs and solar cells (e.g. electrical shunts)

  • Understanding electrical cross-talk in RGD OLED pixel array.

Learn more about the Electrical Module

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Thermal Module


Coupled electro-thermal model to simulate the two-way interaction between heat generation and electrical properties of the semiconductor.

  • Calculating the temperature distribution in OLEDs and solar cells under standard operations

  • Explaining non-ideal IV characteristics of OLEDs and solar cells due to electrothermal coupling

Learn more about the Thermal Module

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Optical Module

Simulate in- and out-coupling in OLEDs and solar cells functionalized by complex 3D optical elements or surface texturing.

  • Optical simulation wit a powerful 3D ray-tracing algorithm.

  • Modeling stand-alone 3D optical elements and their contribution to the device.

  • Simulating optical cross-talk in OLED displays.

  • Easily compled to Setfos to analyze OLEDs and PVs with complex light-coupling geometries.

Learn more about the Optical Module

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Experimental Validation


Laoss has been successfully tested, confronting its results with several experimental results contained in the paper: K. Neyts et al.: “Inhomogeneous luminance in organic light emitting diodes related to electrode resistivity", J. App. Phys., 100, 114513(2006).

Here we present one of the results, which shows a clear agreement between Laoss simulation results and Neyts’ luminance position dependence.

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Application Examples

Applications such as geometry optimization and material choice can be realized with Laoss, leading to substantial time and resource savings.

  • Metal finger width optimization:

metal finger (metal grid) can be added to the transparent electrode of a PV cell in order to improve its conductivity, and as a consequence to improve the device efficiency. In this case the width of the metal finger has been optimized in order to find the best compromise between two counter-acting effects: shadowing due to the metal finger and low conductivity due to the absence of a metal finger.

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  • Electrode material choice:

OpticalTransmission - copie.png

Two important electrodes properties are its transparency and conductivity. Choosing the most efficient material is not an easy task since the relative impact of the conductivity and transparency change with the device size. In this case is shown how Laoss can be easily used to produce a chart of the best material choice for a PV cell depending on the device size.

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Sample 1: Transparency = 85%, σ = 1.14x10^6 S/m
Sample 2: Transparency = 90%, σ = 6.67x10^5 S/m

Various Outputs

Laoss modeling for OLEDs and PVs can produce a wide range of different output data, such as IV curves, Fill Factor vs. conductivity graphs, 2D visualization of electrodes electric potential, current density and dissipation, total output power….

Electric potential in an electrode with a metal grid for conductivity improvement.

Laoss produces accurate IV curves for device characterization, which allows for the extraction of its main parameters: Voc, Isc, FF, Pmax.

Electric potential along the horizontal axis of an electrode with a metal grid for conductivity improvement.

Fill factor study in function of the conductivity, converging towards the ideal case of a perfectly conducting electrode.

Current density flowing in an electrode with a metal grid for conductivity improvement.